Raspbian Lite or Snappy Ubuntu Core work quite well. As for the database, either MySQL or MariaDB is fine.
If you want to manage the database through your browser instead of the command line you can install a web server (like Apache) and PHP, then use for example phpMyAdmin.
I did try Snappy Ubuntu Core but never got past the first login and my post never got answered at Ubuntu Forum:
login incorrect - Ubuntu Core 16 on RPi2
Sure, it's just a run of the mill database server.
Right now I am running OSMC on a RPi3 with MySQL installed on it, and being my MySQL server and run texturecache.py to update the database without a monitor. Then I have 3 other RPi2 running LibreELEC and getting the movice/tv show database off of the RPi3. But Thinking if there is better option(s) or not.