I finally made it, the problem was not that my printer was not recognized but that I did not "give" the usb bus to the container.
An other problem I encountered was that kodi already used the avahi port and and needed it to advertise my printer on my local network
I solved that by asking for a second IP for my device
Check your printer can be found with
Save its location in a variable, my printer is a Canon, change with yours
Then I finally ran the docker command
Now, from another device on the local network try https://192.168.1.32:631, go in the administration panel and add your printer (username admin, password mySecretPassword which you have of course changed)
Now add a printer, search a printer a the network, host 192.168.1.32 and you should find it