I have fixed a corrupted SD card in the pass doing it this way.
This was on windows 10.
Download latest SD card formatter 5.0.1
Open command prompt with admin privileges.
The type list disk
Then type select disk * (replacing * with the number of your SD card)
Then type clean
Wait a few seconds until it's finished
Type exit again to exit command prompt.
Now safely remove you SD card.
Re insert the SD card and open SD formatter.
Select overwrite erase and let it do its thing.
It should be good now.
I spent ages trying to fix a corrupted SD card and this was the only method that worked.
Hope it works for you too
Called my brother at home this morning and had him try this and same issue format failed. See pic attached that he sent me. I guess I'll deal with this when I get back. I also had him send me the debug log, not sure if it'll say anything, but here it is